Six Sigma Process

Six Sigma is an approach to improving the quality of product or services, which strives for near perfection.

It is disciplined data driven approach methodology for eliminating defect in process and product.

It can be used to describe how well a process (or product) such as work environment is performing and indicate way to performing improves that process.

Measurement and statistical analysis of data are center to the six sigma approach.

It is used to reduce the variation in quality measurement

The commonly used six sigma process is called DEMAIC (Define-Measure-Analysis-Improve-Control) which is typically used to improve existing process.

The DMAIC approach is used in the ongoing evaluation of workspace because it is powerful process to improve customer requirement for the space and performance of that space.

The DMAIC includes following activities-:
1] Define-: Define project scope and measure establish

2] Measure-: Initial measures are collected and determine current quality performance

3] Analysis-: Data are analyzed and further measurement taken

4] Improve-: Strategies are making implemented to make improvement

5]Control-: The findings are shared organizationally and measurement feedback loop is established to collect data, identify problem and hold the gain to make continuous improvement.

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Capability Maturity Model CMM Levels

The software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed a comprehensive model Capability Maturity Model (CMM) that is predicted on a set of software engineering capabilities that should be present as organizations to reach different level of process maturity to achieve product quality and standard.

CMM is a service mark owned by Camegie Mellon University and refers to a development model from actual data. When it is applied to an existing organization for software development process, it allows an effective approach towards improving them.

The CMM provides a theoretical continuation along which process maturity can be developed incrementally from one level to the next level. Skipping level is not allowed / feasible.

CMM is a model of 5 level of organizational maturity that determines effectiveness in delivering quality software.

Organization can receive CMM rating by undergoing assessment by qualified auditors.
1]INITIAL-: Chaos, periodic and heroic effort requires completing project. If any processes in place success may not be repeatable.

2]REPEATED-: Software project tracking, requirement management, realistic, planning and coordination management processes are in place successful practices can be repeated.

3]DEFINE-: Standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization.

4]MANAGED-: Metrics are used to track productivity, processes and product. Project performance is predictable and quality is consistently high.

5]OPTIMIZE-: The focus is on continuous improvement.

CMM Integrated as
Level    Focus    Process Areas
5 Continuous Process Improvement    Organizational improvement,Casual Analysis and Resolution
4 Quantitative Management    Organizational process performance, Quantitative project Management
3  Process Standardization    Requirement Development, Technical Solution, Product Integration, V & V
2    Basic Project Management, Requirement Management, Project Planning, Monitoring & Control, Quality Assurance
1    Chaos, periodic and heroic effort to complete project
Final outcome of the CMM is Productivity & Quality

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Process Improvement Cycle

Process Improvement is a understanding existing process and introduce process changes to improve product quality and standard, reduces cost or accelerate schedules as per planned.

Most process improvement has focused on defect reduction. This reflects the increasing attentions paid by industry to product quality and standard.

However other process attributes can also be the focus of improvement

Process attributes / characteristics -:

Process Improvement Cycle-:
A] Process Measurement
B] Process Analysis
C] Process Change

A] Process Measurement-:
Attributes of current processes are measured. These are baseline for accessing improvement

B] Process Analysis-:
The current process is accessed and weakness are identified

C] Process Change-:
Changes to process that have been identified during the analysis are introduced.

Process Improvement Cycle is used for
•    To develop effective software
•    To develop more reliable

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Software Quality Metrics

Definition of Measure-:
Amount of dimensions or size of some attribute of a product or process.
E.g. Number of errors in program
Definition of Metrics-:
Quantitative measure of degree to which a system, component or process a given attribute.
E.g. Number of errors found per person hours expended for the program
Why measure Metrics-:
Determine the quality of the current product and process standard
Improve quality of a product or process standard
Motivation for Metrics-:
– Estimate the cost and schedule of future project
– Evaluate the productivity impacts of new tools and techniques
– Establish productivity trends over time
– Improves the software quality
– Forecast future staffing needs
– Anticipate and reduce future maintenance needs
Common software metric includes-:
– Bug per line of code
– Code Coverage
– Cohesion
– Coupling
– Cyclometric complexity
– Function point Analysis
– Number of classes and interfaces
– Number of line of customer requirement
– Source line of code
– Correctness
– Usability
– Standard for software evaluation
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Mc Call’s Quality Factors

Mc Call’s and his colleagues proposed a useful categorization of factors that affects on quality of product and product standard.
This software quality factor focus on three important aspects of software product
1] Its operational characteristics
2] Its ability to undergo changes
3] Its adaptability to new environment
Mc Call’s provide following description for quality
1. Correctness-: The extent to which software satisfy its specifications and fulfills the user objectives or requirements.
2. Effectiveness-: The extent to which the software performs its intended functions with minimum consumption of resources
3. Expandability-: The ease with which the software can be modified to add functionality
4. Integrity-: The extent to which the software prevent unauthorized access to or modifications in the software or data
5. Interoperability-: The ability of two or more systems to exchange information and to mutually use the information that has been exchanged
6. Maintainability-: Software component can be maintained over their expected useful life
7. Portability-: Software can be transferred to new operating environment, OS and hardware platform
8. Reusability-: The modules can be used in multiple applications
9. Reliability-: The ability of software performs a required function under stated condition for period of time
10. Testability-: Perform its intended functions
11. Usability-: Easy to learn and operate

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Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Activities

Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is defined as conformance to explicitly and implicitly stated functional and performance requirement, characteristics that are expected of all professionally developed software.

Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Activities-:
The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) recommends a set of SQA activities that deal with quality assurance planning oversight, record keeping, and analysis and reporting. These activities are performed (or facilities)

1] Prepare SQA Plan-: Prepare plan for project

2] Participate in the development of the project-: Selects process for the work to be performed

3] Review software engineering activities-: Identifies documents and track deviation from the  process

4] Audit designed software work product-: Verifies the corrections have been made and report

5] Ensure the deviation-: Deviation may be encountered in the project plan process, process

6] Record non compliance and report to senior-: Items are tracked until they are resolved

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Definition of Quality Assurance (QA)


Quality assurance (QA) is planned and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate assurance that product and services will confirm to specific requirement and users or customers need.

It is process oriented.

It is defect prevention based.

To determine the quality assurance the most popular tool is used i. e Shewart Cycle which is developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. This cycles for quality assurance consists of four steps (PDCA)

  • Plan
  • Do
  • Check
  • Act

Plan -: Define your objective and determine the strategy and supporting methods requires to achieve that objectives.

Do -: Perform necessary training to execute the plan.

Check -: Determine whether work is progressing according to the plan.

Act -: Take the necessary action if work is not being performed according to plan or results.

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Definitions of Quality and Quality Control

Definition of Quality -:

Quality is ongoing process of building and sustaining relationship by evaluating, fulfilling stated and implied needs of the customer.


The American Heritage Dictionary defines quality as “a characteristics of attributes of something”.

Quality is the important factor to increase performance. Quality improves productivity and competitiveness in any organization.

Definition of Quality Control-:

Quality control is the process in which product quality is compared with applicable standards and necessary action is taken when non-conformance is detected in the process. It is process of finding defect and corrects. It is corrective approach. It helps to improve development of product and product standard.

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