Difference between Error Bug Defect Faults Failure

 “A mistakes or errors in programming by programmer is called as error or mistakes, error or mistakes will found by tester during the testing is called as defect, defect accepted by programmer called as bug and because of bug system fails to do what it should to do (not perform intended functions) is called as failure.”

Error or Mistakes -:
A programmer action (designing and building) produces incorrect results called errors or mistakes because of errors.

Bug or Defect or Faults -:
Error encounters during the testing called bug or defects because fail to performs intended addition.
A program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner because of coding error, exception and faults and inform to programmer to re-correct.

Defect Free -:
A function performs its intended functions called that are expected result or defect free.

Failure -:
System fails to do what it should to do (actual result deviates from the expected result) because of errors in programming called as failure.

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Automated Static Analysis

 Automated Static Analysis is help developers to eliminate software defects at early stages and produce more reliable software at a lower cost.

It automatically checks the source code for conformity with a predefined set of rules which is set by the company.

It is used for empirical evaluation on the basis of
– Designing
– Coding
– Storage Management

Automated Static analysis tools are a fast and efficient at finding code defects and inconsistencies, especially in large code bases, including older legacy code and newly created code.

A static code analysis tool can help with your code review process by
– Detecting areas in the code that need to be refactored and simplified.
– Finding areas of the code that may need more testing or deeper review.
– Identifying design issues such as cyclometric complexity.
– Identifying potential software quality issues before the code moves to next level.

Automatic Static analysis tools Checks
– Data Faults
– Control Faults
– Input / Output Faults
– Interface Faults
– Storage Management Faults
– Path Analysis

Advantage -:
1] Detection of defects earlier in the process, when they are easier and more cost effective to fix.
2] Eliminating unnecessary program components and ensuring that the software being analyzed is compatible with other programs likely to be run concurrently

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Checklist Template

Checklist Template is a process of examining each requirement against the specified requirement.

Checklist is used to reduce the failure.

It helps to ensure consistency and completeness in performing task. It is one type of schedule, which lays out tasks to be done according to user specified requirement.
E. g. “to do list“

It is a review or analysis model addresses by review or inspection committee on the following questions.

S.N
 Requirements to be checked
 Yes
No 
 NA
Remark
 A]
 Requirements and Planning
 i
 Are requirement stated clearly
 √
 ii
 Has the test objective been stated clearly
 √
 iii
 Have all the business software functions been identified?
 √
iv
Has the work paper been prepared for each test milestone?
v
 Are the entry and exit criteria reasonable?
vi
 Has the test budget been calculated?
 √
vii
 Has the start date and end date been defined?
viii
 Has adequate time been allocated for the step?
ix
 Have adequate data resources been assigned / identified to this step?
 √
B]
Designing and Coding
i
Is the design template ready?
ii
Does the programmer understood all requirement?
iii
Has the test input and output been defined?
iv
 Is programmer following coding standards?
C]
Testing, Deployment and Maintenance
i
Is verifying and validating programs considered ?
ii
Have the expected results from testing been determined?
iii
 Are all of the uncovered defects recorded in detail?
iv
 Are all of the uncovered defects corrected prior to moving
to the next level?
 √
v
Have the expected results from testing been determined?
 √
vi
 Has the structure addressed Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability, Testability, Re-usability, Expandability, Flexibility
 √
vii
 Are the evaluation criteria measured?
 √
viii
 Has a test summary been described?
 √

 Checklist Report
Date -: …/…/…

Name of Project -: …………………………………………………………………

Name of Module / Process Inspected -: ……………………………..

Version of Module / Process Inspected -: ……………………………………

User requirement and specification criteria have been satisfied in inspection

Author -: …………………………………………………………………………………

Reader -: ………………………………………………………………………………….

Recorder -: ………………………………………………………………………………

Moderator -: ……………………………………………………………………………

Inspector -: …………………………………………………………………………….

 

       Moderator Signature and Date

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Manual Testing Interview Questions

Manual software testing interview questions for freshers

1. Steps of software testing life cycle?
2. Objectives of software testing?
3. What are the levels of software testing?
4. What is mean by unit testing, integration, system and acceptance testing?
5. What is mean by alpha and beta testing?
6. Difference between static and dynamic testing?
7. Difference between manual and automation testing?
8. What are the Types of testing?
9. What is mean by usability, regression and performance testing?
10. What is mean by review?
11. What are the types and classes of reviews?
12. Why Cyclometric testing is used?
13. What is mean by black box and white box testing?
14. Techniques of black box testing?
15. Techniques of white box testing?
16. What is mean by low level and high level testing?
17. What is the use of equivalence partitioning and BVA?
18. What is mean by path, statement and branch and decision statement?
19. What is the use of test cases?
20. What is the use of test plan and what are the contents
21. What is mean by checklist?
22. Difference between black box and white box testing?
23. What are the objectives of automation testing?
24. Who are the participants of meeting/reviews/inspection process?
25. What is mean by tester’s workbench?
26. What is mean by load testing and performance testing?
27. What are the Quality factors for quality software
28. What are the CMM level
29. What is six sigma, how it is useful
30. Process improvement and quality metrics
31. What is SQA. Explain Activities of SQA
32. What is Reliability. What are the measures and models of reliability
33. V and V model
34. Software inspection
35. Static analyzer
36. What is Clean room software engineering
37. What is mean by FTR (Formal Technical Review)

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MBA Project Topics

Following are the project topics for MBA BBA -:

1. Analysis of Investment Opportunities
2. Analysis of Mutual Fund Schemes
3. Analysis of Industrial Policies and Strategies
4. Equity analysis of banks
5. A study of global economic crisis: pros and cons
6. Impact of microeconomic factors on industry
7. Impact of microeconomic factors on market
8. Impact of share market on industry
9. Foreign Direct Investment in developing countries
10. Effect of discount on customer
11. ERP and SAP implementation in SME

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Project Topics for MCA

Project Topics for MCA BCA BCS which is very important to present what you developed as a internship or industrial training to solve the problem. Following are the list of project topics for MCA BCA, BCS, and information technology

1. Library Management
2. Hospital Management
3. Inventory Management
4. Call Center Management
5. Feedback Management System
6. Leave Management
7. Logistic Management System
8. Water Management System
9. Hotel Management
10. Placement Cell Management
11. Blood Donation Management System
12. Crime Management System
13. Mall Management System
14. Project Management
15. Hostel Management
16. E-Commerce
17. E-Shoppe
18. E-Bidding
19. E-Wallet
20. E-Chatting
21. E-Voting
22. E-Test Management
23. Defect Tracking
24. Online Ticket Reservation System
25. Online Recipe
26. Online Insurance
27. Doctors on Click
28. Campaign Information System
29. Real Estate
30. Virtual Classroom
31. ERP
32. CRM
33. Hacking
34. RFID Security
35. Simulation
36. Speech Recognition
37. Interactive Wireless
38. Image Processing
39. Internet Mailing System
40. Mobile Computing
41. Digital Signature

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Group Discussion Topics

Group Discussion (GD) Topics for Competitive Exams and Campus Drives-:

 Computer-:
1. Role of Computers / IT in our day to day life
2. IT – A pros and cons
3. Computer progress should be helpful for human progress
Social -:
1. Should Government Ban On Child Labor
2. Literacy v/s Education
3. Should porn stars be accepted in Indian film industry?
4. English language should be made the Official Language
5. Love marriage is better than arrange marriage
6. Are Hindi movies harming our culture?
7. Sons are more caring than daughters
8. Brain-Drain has to be stopped
9. Being rich is being successful
10. Is reservation for women helpful to society?
11. Joint family v/s single family
12. Should journalism out of the premises of censorship
13. NGOs – Do they serve people’s interests?
14. Rain water harvesting is the need of future
Politics-:
1. Is education qualifications required for politician?
2. Necessity of Women Quota for Women Empowerment
3. Retirement of politician age should be decided
4. Should voters be given NOTA (None of the above) in democracy?

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Presentation Topics for MCA

Presentation Topics for MCA BCA BCS -:

1. Cloud Computing
2. Grid Computing
3. Open Source Cloud
4. Big Data
5. Data Mining
6. Hadoop
7. Virtualization
8. Cryptography
9. Sailfish OS
10. Robotics
11. Mobile Technology
12. Web Crawling
13. Wireless Network
14. Digitization
15. Nano Technology
16. Database Security

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C Control Statements

A program is a collection of a number of statements which are usually executed in sequence. We can do much more powerful operations with help of Programs if we can control the order in which statements are run using control statements in c.
In C Programming language there are three general types of statements. They are:
– Assignment, where values, usually the results of calculations, are stored in variables.
– Input / Output, data is read in or printed out.
– Control, the program makes a decision about what to do next.
We can use control statements for -:
looping:- Repeating sections of the program
Branching:- Selecting between optional sections of a program
Selection Statements (Branching), Nested switch, conditional expression
Branching is deciding what actions to take and looping is deciding how many times to take a certain action. Branching is so called because the program chooses to follow one branch or another.
if statement -:
This is the simplest form of the branching statements. It takes an expression in parenthesis and a statement or block of statements. if the expression is true then the statement or block of statements gets executed otherwise these statements are skipped.
if(boolean_expression)
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the boolean expression is true */
}
else
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the Boolean expression is false */
}
If the Boolean_ expression evaluates to true, then the if block of code will be executed, otherwise else block of code will be executed.
C programming language assumes any non-zero and non-null values as true, and if it is either zero or null, then it is assumed as false value.
if statements take the following forms -:
Simple ‘if’ with only one expression
if (expression)
statement;
‘if’ with more than one expressions
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}

Used for true and false type of statements: if…else -:
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else
{
Block of statements;
}
Used for branching: nested if -:
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else if(expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else
{
Block of statements;
}
switch statement-:
A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. Each value is called a case, and the variable being switched on is checked for each switch case.
Syntax:
switch(expression)
{
case constant-expression :
statements;
break; /* optional */
case constant-expression :
statements;
break; /* optional */
/* you can have any number of case statements */
default: /* Optional */
statements;
}
The following rules apply to a switch statement:
• The expression used in a switch statement must have an integral or enumerated type, or be of a class type in which the class has a single conversion function to an integral or enumerated type.
• You can have any number of case statements within a switch. Each case is followed by the value to be compared to and a colon.
• The constant-expression for a case must be the same data type as the variable in the switch, and it must be a constant or a literal.
• When the variable being switched on is equal to a case, the statements following that case will execute until a break statement is reached.
• When a break statement is reached, the switch terminates, and the flow of control jumps to the next line following the switch statement.
• Not every case needs to contain a break. If no break appears, the flow of control will fall through to subsequent cases until a break is reached.
• A switch statement can have an optional default case, which must appear at the end of the switch. The default case can be used for performing a task when none of the cases is true. No break is needed in the default case.
Iterative Statements-:
Iterative statements in C are used to perform looping operations until the given condition is true. Control comes out of the loop statements once condition becomes false.
These types of task can be solved in programming using loops. There are 3 types of loop control statements in C language. They are,
1. for loop
2. while loop
3. do-while loop
for loop -:
The ‘for’ statement provides a compact way to iterate over a range of values or statements. Programmers often refer to it as the “for loop” because of the way in which it repeatedly loops until a particular condition is satisfied. The general form of the ‘for’ statement can be expressed as follows:
for(initialization; termination; increment)
{
statement(s);
}
When using this version of the ‘for’ statement, keep in mind that:
• The initialization expression initializes the loop; it’s executed once, as the loop begins.
• When the termination expression evaluates to false, the loop terminates.
• The increment expression is invoked after each iteration through the loop; it is perfectly acceptable for this expression to increment or decrement a value.

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Introduction to C Programming

Introduction-:

In basics of C, a data is kept in random access memory (RAM) while executing a C program. This data can be of any form, it can be variable, structure and array that have been declared by the program. The question is where did this data come from, and what can the program do with it?

  • Data or input comes from some location external to the program. Data moved from an external location into RAM, where the program can access it, is called input. The keyboard and disk files are the most common sources of program input.
  • Data can also be sent to a location external to the program; this is called output. The most common destinations for output are the screen, a printer, and disk files.

 Input sources and output destinations are collectively referred to as devices. The keyboard is a device; the screen is a device, and so on. Some devices (the keyboard) are for input only, others (the screen) are for output only, and still others (disk files) are for both input and output. Whatever the device, and whether it’s performing input or output, C carries out all input and output operations by means of streams.

 Input -: In any programming language input means to feed some data into program i.e. Input is any information provided to the program. This can be given in the form of file or from command line. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to read given input and feed it to the program as per requirement. It can be

  • Keyboard input
  • Mouse input
  • File input

 Output -: In any programming language output means to display some data on screen, printer or in any file. Output is any information (or effect) that a program produces. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to output required data. It can be

  • Sounds, lights, pictures, text, motion, etc.
  • On a screen
  • In a file on a disk or tape, etc.

 Console Input & Output functions-:

A console is term used for combined use of screen and keyboard. Console I/O functions can be broadly classified into two —formatted and unformatted console I/O functions. The basic difference between them is that the formatted functions allow the input read from the keyboard or the output displayed on the screen/monitor to be formatted as per our requirements.

For example, if values of average marks and percentage marks are to be displayed on the screen, then the details like where this output would appear on the screen, how many spaces would be present between the two values, the number of places after the decimal points, etc. can be controlled using formatted functions.

 Formatted Input & Output (scanf /printf )-:

The functions printf( ), and scanf( ) fall under the category of formatted console I/O functions.

These functions allow us to supply the input in a fixed forma and let us obtain the output in the specified form. Its general form looks like:

 printf ( “format string”, list of variables ) ;

int printf(const char *format, …)

The format string can contain:

  • Characters that are simply printed as they are
  • Conversion specifications that begin with a % sign
  • Escape sequences that begin with a \ sign
  • If successful, the total number of characters written is returned. On failure, a negative number is returned.

Format Specifications  -:

The   %d  and   %f   used in the   printf( )   are called format specifiers.   They tell   printf( )   to print the value of   avg   as a decimal integer   and the value of per as a float.

 scanf() function-:

The C library function int scanf (const char *format, …) reads formatted input from stdin.

Syntax:                          int scanf (const char *format, …)

  • The scanf() function is used to read character, string, numeric data from keyboard
  • Consider below example program where user enters a character. This value is assigned to the variable “ch” and then displayed.
  • Then, user enters a string and this value is assigned to the variable ”str” and then displayed.
  • If successful, the total number of characters written is returned, otherwise a negative number is returned.

sprintf & sscanf-:

sprint() -:

It is used to store formatted data as a string used to create strings as output using formatted data. The syntax of the sprintf() function is as follows:

int sprintf (char *str const char *format, … );

  • str −: This is the pointer to an array of char elements where the resulting C string is stored.
  • format −: The *form parameter will show the format of the output. This is the String that contains the text to be written to buffer. It can optionally contain embedded format tags that are replaced by the values specified in subsequent additional arguments and formatted as requested. Format tags prototype: %[flags][width][.precision][length]specifier.

With sprintf (), you can combine several data variables into a character array. Let’s write a program that stores multiple bits of data into the array and then see the output.

sscanf() -:

In the C Programming Language, the sscanf function reads formatted output from an object pointed to by str.

int sscanf(const char *str, const char *format, …)

  • str -: Function processes as its source to retrieve the data.
  • format -:Contains one or more of the following items: Whitespace character, Non-whitespace character and Format specifiers

 

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