Group Discussion Topics

Group Discussion (GD) Topics for Competitive Exams and Campus Drives-:

 Computer-:
1. Role of Computers / IT in our day to day life
2. IT – A pros and cons
3. Computer progress should be helpful for human progress
Social -:
1. Should Government Ban On Child Labor
2. Literacy v/s Education
3. Should porn stars be accepted in Indian film industry?
4. English language should be made the Official Language
5. Love marriage is better than arrange marriage
6. Are Hindi movies harming our culture?
7. Sons are more caring than daughters
8. Brain-Drain has to be stopped
9. Being rich is being successful
10. Is reservation for women helpful to society?
11. Joint family v/s single family
12. Should journalism out of the premises of censorship
13. NGOs – Do they serve people’s interests?
14. Rain water harvesting is the need of future
Politics-:
1. Is education qualifications required for politician?
2. Necessity of Women Quota for Women Empowerment
3. Retirement of politician age should be decided
4. Should voters be given NOTA (None of the above) in democracy?

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Presentation Topics for MCA

Presentation Topics for MCA BCA BCS -:

1. Cloud Computing
2. Grid Computing
3. Open Source Cloud
4. Big Data
5. Data Mining
6. Hadoop
7. Virtualization
8. Cryptography
9. Sailfish OS
10. Robotics
11. Mobile Technology
12. Web Crawling
13. Wireless Network
14. Digitization
15. Nano Technology
16. Database Security

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C Control Statements

A program is a collection of a number of statements which are usually executed in sequence. We can do much more powerful operations with help of Programs if we can control the order in which statements are run using control statements in c.
In C Programming language there are three general types of statements. They are:
– Assignment, where values, usually the results of calculations, are stored in variables.
– Input / Output, data is read in or printed out.
– Control, the program makes a decision about what to do next.
We can use control statements for -:
looping:- Repeating sections of the program
Branching:- Selecting between optional sections of a program
Selection Statements (Branching), Nested switch, conditional expression
Branching is deciding what actions to take and looping is deciding how many times to take a certain action. Branching is so called because the program chooses to follow one branch or another.
if statement -:
This is the simplest form of the branching statements. It takes an expression in parenthesis and a statement or block of statements. if the expression is true then the statement or block of statements gets executed otherwise these statements are skipped.
if(boolean_expression)
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the boolean expression is true */
}
else
{
/* statement(s) will execute if the Boolean expression is false */
}
If the Boolean_ expression evaluates to true, then the if block of code will be executed, otherwise else block of code will be executed.
C programming language assumes any non-zero and non-null values as true, and if it is either zero or null, then it is assumed as false value.
if statements take the following forms -:
Simple ‘if’ with only one expression
if (expression)
statement;
‘if’ with more than one expressions
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}

Used for true and false type of statements: if…else -:
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else
{
Block of statements;
}
Used for branching: nested if -:
if (expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else if(expression)
{
Block of statements;
}
else
{
Block of statements;
}
switch statement-:
A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. Each value is called a case, and the variable being switched on is checked for each switch case.
Syntax:
switch(expression)
{
case constant-expression :
statements;
break; /* optional */
case constant-expression :
statements;
break; /* optional */
/* you can have any number of case statements */
default: /* Optional */
statements;
}
The following rules apply to a switch statement:
• The expression used in a switch statement must have an integral or enumerated type, or be of a class type in which the class has a single conversion function to an integral or enumerated type.
• You can have any number of case statements within a switch. Each case is followed by the value to be compared to and a colon.
• The constant-expression for a case must be the same data type as the variable in the switch, and it must be a constant or a literal.
• When the variable being switched on is equal to a case, the statements following that case will execute until a break statement is reached.
• When a break statement is reached, the switch terminates, and the flow of control jumps to the next line following the switch statement.
• Not every case needs to contain a break. If no break appears, the flow of control will fall through to subsequent cases until a break is reached.
• A switch statement can have an optional default case, which must appear at the end of the switch. The default case can be used for performing a task when none of the cases is true. No break is needed in the default case.
Iterative Statements-:
Iterative statements in C are used to perform looping operations until the given condition is true. Control comes out of the loop statements once condition becomes false.
These types of task can be solved in programming using loops. There are 3 types of loop control statements in C language. They are,
1. for loop
2. while loop
3. do-while loop
for loop -:
The ‘for’ statement provides a compact way to iterate over a range of values or statements. Programmers often refer to it as the “for loop” because of the way in which it repeatedly loops until a particular condition is satisfied. The general form of the ‘for’ statement can be expressed as follows:
for(initialization; termination; increment)
{
statement(s);
}
When using this version of the ‘for’ statement, keep in mind that:
• The initialization expression initializes the loop; it’s executed once, as the loop begins.
• When the termination expression evaluates to false, the loop terminates.
• The increment expression is invoked after each iteration through the loop; it is perfectly acceptable for this expression to increment or decrement a value.

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Introduction to C Programming

Introduction-:

In basics of C, a data is kept in random access memory (RAM) while executing a C program. This data can be of any form, it can be variable, structure and array that have been declared by the program. The question is where did this data come from, and what can the program do with it?

  • Data or input comes from some location external to the program. Data moved from an external location into RAM, where the program can access it, is called input. The keyboard and disk files are the most common sources of program input.
  • Data can also be sent to a location external to the program; this is called output. The most common destinations for output are the screen, a printer, and disk files.

 Input sources and output destinations are collectively referred to as devices. The keyboard is a device; the screen is a device, and so on. Some devices (the keyboard) are for input only, others (the screen) are for output only, and still others (disk files) are for both input and output. Whatever the device, and whether it’s performing input or output, C carries out all input and output operations by means of streams.

 Input -: In any programming language input means to feed some data into program i.e. Input is any information provided to the program. This can be given in the form of file or from command line. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to read given input and feed it to the program as per requirement. It can be

  • Keyboard input
  • Mouse input
  • File input

 Output -: In any programming language output means to display some data on screen, printer or in any file. Output is any information (or effect) that a program produces. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to output required data. It can be

  • Sounds, lights, pictures, text, motion, etc.
  • On a screen
  • In a file on a disk or tape, etc.

 Console Input & Output functions-:

A console is term used for combined use of screen and keyboard. Console I/O functions can be broadly classified into two —formatted and unformatted console I/O functions. The basic difference between them is that the formatted functions allow the input read from the keyboard or the output displayed on the screen/monitor to be formatted as per our requirements.

For example, if values of average marks and percentage marks are to be displayed on the screen, then the details like where this output would appear on the screen, how many spaces would be present between the two values, the number of places after the decimal points, etc. can be controlled using formatted functions.

 Formatted Input & Output (scanf /printf )-:

The functions printf( ), and scanf( ) fall under the category of formatted console I/O functions.

These functions allow us to supply the input in a fixed forma and let us obtain the output in the specified form. Its general form looks like:

 printf ( “format string”, list of variables ) ;

int printf(const char *format, …)

The format string can contain:

  • Characters that are simply printed as they are
  • Conversion specifications that begin with a % sign
  • Escape sequences that begin with a \ sign
  • If successful, the total number of characters written is returned. On failure, a negative number is returned.

Format Specifications  -:

The   %d  and   %f   used in the   printf( )   are called format specifiers.   They tell   printf( )   to print the value of   avg   as a decimal integer   and the value of per as a float.

 scanf() function-:

The C library function int scanf (const char *format, …) reads formatted input from stdin.

Syntax:                          int scanf (const char *format, …)

  • The scanf() function is used to read character, string, numeric data from keyboard
  • Consider below example program where user enters a character. This value is assigned to the variable “ch” and then displayed.
  • Then, user enters a string and this value is assigned to the variable ”str” and then displayed.
  • If successful, the total number of characters written is returned, otherwise a negative number is returned.

sprintf & sscanf-:

sprint() -:

It is used to store formatted data as a string used to create strings as output using formatted data. The syntax of the sprintf() function is as follows:

int sprintf (char *str const char *format, … );

  • str −: This is the pointer to an array of char elements where the resulting C string is stored.
  • format −: The *form parameter will show the format of the output. This is the String that contains the text to be written to buffer. It can optionally contain embedded format tags that are replaced by the values specified in subsequent additional arguments and formatted as requested. Format tags prototype: %[flags][width][.precision][length]specifier.

With sprintf (), you can combine several data variables into a character array. Let’s write a program that stores multiple bits of data into the array and then see the output.

sscanf() -:

In the C Programming Language, the sscanf function reads formatted output from an object pointed to by str.

int sscanf(const char *str, const char *format, …)

  • str -: Function processes as its source to retrieve the data.
  • format -:Contains one or more of the following items: Whitespace character, Non-whitespace character and Format specifiers

 

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Number Star Alphabet Pattern programs

Following are the different number, star and alphabet pattern programs used infor logic building

1] Write a c program to print  star pattern
*
* *
* * *
* * * *

#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,j;
clrscr();
for(j=1;j<=4;j++)
{
for(i=1;i<=j;i++)
{
printf(” * “);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
getch();
}

2] Write a c program to print star pattern
* * * *
* * *
* *
*
#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,j;
clrscr();
for(j=4;j>=1;j–)
{
for(i=j;i>=1;i–)
{
printf(” * “);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
getch();
}

3] Write a c program to print star pattern
*
***
*****
*******
*********
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int row, c, n, temp;
printf(“Enter the number of rows in pyramid of stars you wish to see “);
scanf(“%d”,&n);
temp = n;
for ( row = 1 ; row <= n ; row++ )
{
for ( c = 1 ; c < temp ; c++ )
printf(” “);
temp–;
for ( c = 1 ; c <= 2*row – 1 ; c++ )
printf(“*”);
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

4] Write a c program to print number pattern
1
1          2
1         2         3
1         2         3          4
1         2         3          4         5

#include<stdio.h>
void main()
{
int i,j;
clrscr();
for(j=1;j<=5;j++)
{
for(i=1;i<=j;i++)
{
printf(” %d “,i);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
getch();
}

5] Write a c program to print number pattern
1
232
34543
4567654
567898765
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
int n, c, d, num = 1, space;
scanf(“%d”,&n);
space = n – 1;
for ( d = 1 ; d <= n ; d++ )
{
num = d;
for ( c = 1 ; c <= space ; c++ )
printf(” “);
space–;
for ( c = 1 ; c <= d ; c++ )
{
printf(“%d”, num);
num++;
}
num–;
num–;
for ( c = 1 ; c < d ; c++)
{
printf(“%d”, num);
num–;
}
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

6] Write a program to print alphabet pattern
A
b    c
D     E     F
g     h     i     j

int main()
{
int i,j,k,sp;
sp=’A’;
for(i=1;i<=4;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=i;j++)
{
if(i%2==1)
printf(“%c”,sp);
else
printf(“%c”,sp+32);
sp++;
}
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

7] Write a program to print alphabet pattern

a
b     C
d     E     f
g     H     i     J
int main()
{
int i,j,k,sp;
sp=’A’;
for(i=1;i<=4;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=i;j++)
{
if(j%2==0)
printf(“%c”,sp);
else
printf(“%c”,sp+32);
sp++;
}
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

8] Write a program to print alphabet pattern

*
*    A    *
*    A    *    A    *

int main()
{
int i,j,k,sp;
sp=3;
for(i=1;i<=5;i+=2)
{
for(k=1;k<=sp;k++)
printf(” “);
sp–;
for(j=1;j<=i;j++)
{
if(j%2==0)
printf(“A”);
else
printf(“*”);
}
printf(“\n”);
}
return 0;
}

Posted by Kumar in C Programming, 2 comments

Software Inspection Process

Software Inspection is a process of review the source code developed by a peer with the intent of identifying defects and improving maintainability.

It is process of finding or detecting the errors only with checking the whole process

It is formal process. During inspection process documents are prepared and checked thoroughly by the reviewers before the meeting

It involve peers to examine the product which is headed by trained moderator with formal follow-up

It is used to reduce the cost before it goes higher during the SDLC or any process of quality

It is static (Do not require execution)

It is efficient and effective method of verification for improving software quality

Objectives of inspection are-:

  • Helps to improve the quality of the document under inspection
  • It removes defects as early as possible
  • It improve product quality using checklist
  • Verify whether work meets predefined criteria or not

Participants of software inspection are-:

Author

Reader

Recorder

Moderator

Inspector

Software Inspections Process -:

A] Planning-: Define entry and exit criteria and schedules future steps.

B] Overview-: Review software product and process

C] Individual preparation-: Individual activity according to assigned task

D] Inspection / Meeting-: Conduct formal meeting / review to examine process

E] Rework-: Response to defect determined at meeting

F] Follow up-: Verifies that corrections are made or not

 

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Verification and validation Model in SDLC

Verification and validation are independent procedure put together and goes parallel with Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) to perform and complete intended specified functions. The task of Verification and Validations during SDLC phases –:
Planning and Requirement-:
•    Contract Verification
•    Document and risk analysis
•    Evaluate collected requirement
•    Requirement analysis
•    Prepare Test Plan
Design-:
•    Evaluate software design
•    User Interface Analysis
•    Analysis of designed template
Coding-:
•    Evaluate operator instructions and program flowchart
•    Evaluate program specification and documentation
•    Program listing
Testing-:
•    Design and execute test cases
•    Measure traceability metrics
•    Risk Analysis
Deployment-:
•    Installation and configuration audit
•    Generate and evaluate test report
Maintenance-:
•    Evaluate anomalies
•    Assess metrics
•    Validate produced issues

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Difference between Verification and Validation Model

Verification Validation
Software is build as per user specifies requirement and specification Software is build and perform intended functions as per user specifies requirement and specification
Check whether it meets user specified requirement Check whether it fir for use and satisfy business needs
Check “Are we building system right” Check “Are we building  right system”
It is done without executing the software It is done with executing the software
It is static testing It is dynamic testing
It is human based checking It is computer based checking
It comes before validation It comes after verification
Example – Review, Meeting Example – Unit Testing, System Testing
Posted by Kumar in Software Quality Assurance, 1 comment

Verification and Validation Model

Software verification and validation models are independent procedure put together to check the software against user specified requirements.

Every project must verify and validate to remove the defects from software to perform computer operations activity.

This is done by-:

  • Checking that each software item meets user specified requirements.
  • Checking that each software item before it is used as input to other activity.
  • Ensuring that the amount of verification and validation effort is adequately to show each item is suitable for operational use.

Definition of Verification-:

     Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software is built as per user specified requirement and specification.

     Verification is act of checking, reviewing and inspecting or establishing and documenting whether items, processes and services confirms to user specified requirements.

   In verification the cost to correct defect is significantly less than when detected in dynamic testing (in validation)

     Verification will help to determine whether the software is of high quality.

   The formal proof of program correctness is-:

“Are we building right thing”

   Verification is in static mode (is a manual process)

   Verification is a process of inspecting (without executing)

Verification activities includes-:

  • Technical review, meeting, inspection
  • Checking software requirement
  • Checking design component

Definition of Validation-:

     Validation refers to the set of activities that ensure that software is built and perform intended the functions as per user specified requirement and specification.

     According to IEEE “The process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfy user requirement”.

   Validation is end-to-end verification

   Validation will help to determine whether the software is of high quality.

   The formal proof of program correctness is-:

“Are we building thing right?”

   Validation is in dynamic mode

   Validation is a process of testing (with executing on a computer)

Verification activities includes-:

  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing
  • Acceptance testing
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Six Sigma Process

Six Sigma is an approach to improving the quality of product or services, which strives for near perfection.

It is disciplined data driven approach methodology for eliminating defect in process and product.

It can be used to describe how well a process (or product) such as work environment is performing and indicate way to performing improves that process.

Measurement and statistical analysis of data are center to the six sigma approach.

It is used to reduce the variation in quality measurement

The commonly used six sigma process is called DEMAIC (Define-Measure-Analysis-Improve-Control) which is typically used to improve existing process.

The DMAIC approach is used in the ongoing evaluation of workspace because it is powerful process to improve customer requirement for the space and performance of that space.

The DMAIC includes following activities-:
1] Define-: Define project scope and measure establish

2] Measure-: Initial measures are collected and determine current quality performance

3] Analysis-: Data are analyzed and further measurement taken

4] Improve-: Strategies are making implemented to make improvement

5]Control-: The findings are shared organizationally and measurement feedback loop is established to collect data, identify problem and hold the gain to make continuous improvement.

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